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  • 국내학술논문 (259,203)
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  • 1.
  • Background: Human enterovirus (HEV) is the main cause of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina. In recent years, enterovirus outbreaks have been frequently associated with some serotypes. This study analyzed the genetic characteristics of enterovirus-associated symptomatic cases in Korea in 2016.
    Methodology/Results: A total of 2,379 clinical specimens were collected from patients who were suspected of enterovirus infections in 2016. The detection of HEV was performed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR, while genotype analysis was evaluated based on VP1 gene expression. The overall HEV-positive rate was 37.2% (884/2,379). Of 884 HEV-positive cases, the most frequently presented genotypes were E18 (61.0%), CB5 (7.3%), CA16 (6.2%), and EV71 (5.2%). The detection rate of enterovirus according to symptoms was 42.5% (338/796) for aseptic meningitis, 64.0% (142/222) for HFMD and herpangina, and 42.6% (43/101) for HFMD with complications.
    Conclusion: At present, there are no anti-viral treatments specific to HEV infections. This study may encourage studies for the development for HEV vaccines and therapeutics by providing surveillance data of enterovirus infections.
  • 2.
  • This study was conducted to assess the characteristics of dietary supplement users and to evaluate nutrient intakes from dietary supplements. Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV-3 (2015) raw data, a nutrient composition table for dietary supplements was developed and nutrient intakes from food and dietary supplements was estimated. The nutrients included in the composition table for dietary supplements were calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C. The proportion of dietary supplement user during the recent one year was 41.8%, which was higher in women, and in those aged 1-5 years or 50 years and over. The most frequently consumed supplements was vitamin and mineral product in all age groups, while the second-most frequently consumed supplements were probiotic products in younger individuals and omega-3 fatty acid products in the older individuals. The intakes of calcium, iron, and vitamin C were 515.6 ㎎, 17.3 ㎎, and 115.0 ㎎, respectively from food, and 574.8 ㎎, 19.9 ㎎, and 476.3 ㎎, respectively from food plus dietary supplement. Although the proportion of subjects with undernutrition was reduced by adding respective dietary supplement use, the proportion of subjects with overnutrition higher than the upper tolerable levels slightly increased.
  • 3.
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate tuberculosis (TB) incidence and latent TB infection (LTBI) prevalence among high school students in Korea.
    Methods: With the concerned literature review, data were retrieved from notified new TB cases through the Integrated Disease and Health Control System from the year 2010-2016, and from contact investigations and screening for LTBI during 2012-2017.
    Results: In the Republic of Korea, the notification rate of new TB cases among individuals aged 16-18 years markedly decreased from 64.6 per 100,000 population in 2010 to 23.5 per 100,000 population in 2016(an annual decrease rate of 15.5%), whereas that among all age groups decreased from 72.8 per 100,000 population in 2010 to 60.4 per 100,000 population in 2016(an annual decrease rate of 3.1%). Furthermore, the fraction of TB cases among 16-18-year-old individuals declined from 3.8% (1,382 cases) in 2010 to 1.5% (449 cases) in 2016. In the targeted contact investigations, the prevalence of LTBI among high school students ranged from 2.1% to 5.9%, with a mean rate of 4.8% during 2013-2016 (6.8% at a high school in 2016: 30% among close contacts and 4.6% among casual contacts), whereas the positivity rates in the LTBI screening program for general high school population ranged from 1.2% to 2.1% during 2014-2017.
    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that LTBI screening and treatment based on contact investigation, especially for close contacts, in schools should be prioritized in national TB control program.
  • 4.
  • The Korea National Institute of Health has conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study of more than 246,000 participants, the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) since 2000. To improve the utilization and completeness of the collected epidemiological data, we have performed data linkage by personal identification number between KoGES data and vital registration data (death as health outcome) in collaboration with the Statistics Korea (KOSTAT). By the end of 2015, 6,387 deaths were matched/identified among 215,113 KoGES participants through data linkage. External researchers can utilize the data on the causes of death linked with KoGES epidemiological data in accordance with standard procedures and regulations. In this paper, we introduce the procedure for requesting the cohort-based data linked with death outcomes for enabling longitudinal studies.
  • 5.
  • In the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the synthesis and secretion of extracellular protease is a typical cooperative behavior regulated by quorum sensing. However, this type of cooperative behavior is easily exploited by other individuals who do not synthesize public goods, which is known as the “tragedy of the commons”. Here P. aeruginosa was inoculated into casein media with different nitrogen salts added. In casein broth, protease (a type of public good) is necessary for bacterial growth. After 30 days of sequential transfer, some groups propagated stably and avoided “tragedy of the commons”. The evolved cooperators who continued to synthesize protease were isolated from these stable groups. By comparing the characteristics of quorum sensing in these cooperators, an identical evolutionary pattern was found. A variety of cooperative behaviors regulated by quorum sensing, such as the synthesis and secretion of protease and signals, were significantly reduced during the process of evolution. Such reductions improved the efficiency of cooperation, helping to prevent cheating. In addition, the production of pyocyanin, which is regulated by the RhlIR system, increased during the process of evolution, possibly due to its role in stabilizing the cooperation. This study contributes towards our understanding of the evolution of quorum sensing of P. aeruginosa.
  • 6.
  • designated S7-2-11T, was isolated from apple orchard soil from Gyeongsangnam-do Province, Republic of Korea, and was characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain S7-2- 11T belongs to the family Cytophagaceae in phylum Bacteroidetes, and is closely related to Spirosoma luteolum 16F6ET (94.2% identity), Spirosoma knui 15J8-12T (92.7%), and Spirosoma linguale DSM 74T (91.0%). The G + C content of the genomic DNA of strain S7-2-11T was 49.8 mol%. Strain S7-2-11T contained summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c; 35.1%), C16:1 ω5c (22.4%), C15:0 iso (13.9%), and C17:0 iso 3-OH (10.6%) as major cellular fatty acids, and MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, and two unidentified polar lipids. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain S7-2-11T with the genus Spirosoma. The results of physiological and biochemical tests showed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolate from recognized Spirosoma species. On the basis of its phenotypic properties, genotypic distinctiveness, and chemotaxonomic features, strain S7-2-11T represents a novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma pomorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S7-2-11T (= KCTC 52726T = JCM 32130T).
  • 7.
  • A Gram-negative, motile, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated 119BY6-57T was isolated from spongin. The taxonomic position of the novel isolate was confirmed using the polyphasic approach. Strain 119BY6-57T grew well at 25– 30°C on marine agar. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain 119BY6-57T belongs to the family Xanthomonadaceae and is related to Lysobacter aestuarii S2-CT (99.8% sequence similarity), L. maris KMU-14T (97.5%), and L. daejeonensis GH1-9T (97.3%). Lower sequence similarities (97.0%) were found with all of the other recognized members of the genus Lysobacter. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 69.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the major fatty acids were C16:0 iso, C15:0 iso, summed feature 9 (comprising C17􍾙:1 iso ω9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl), summed feature 3 (comprising C16􍾙:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), and C11:0 iso 3-OH. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, and an unidentified polar lipid. DNADNA relatedness values between strain 119BY6-57T and its closest phylogenetically neighbors were below 48.0 ± 2.1%. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is concluded that strain 119BY6-57T is a new member within the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter spongiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 119BY6-57T (= KACC 19276T = LMG 30077T).
  • 8.
  • The patterns of macrobiota in lotic ecosystems have been extensively explored, however, the dynamics of microbiota remain poorly investigated, especially in the high-elevation region. To address this deficit, we collected eight samples to unveil the bacterial and archaeal community in the Kaidu river, located at the arid region of northwestern China (an average of 2,500 m a.s.l.). For the bacterial community, phylogenetically Betaproteobacteria prevailed, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at the finer genus level, Limnohabitans and Variovorax were prominent. Along the river, the bacterial community showed a continuous succession. Specifically, their α- and β-diversity gradually increased, suggesting a distance-decay pattern. Additionally, there was an ecological transition between the dominant and the rare sub-community along the river: the relative abundance of the dominant members gradually decreased as the rare members increased. We report that temperature and spatial distance were significantly related to the variation of bacterial community. Variance partitioning analysis showed that the environmental factors contributed more to the bacterial community than did the spatial distance. In the case of the archaeal community, the methanogenic groups, mainly Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina, were prominent within the Kaidu river. Unlike the continuous change in the patterns of the bacterial community, the archaeal community showed a constant pattern along the river. Our results showed that the archaeal community was independent of the environmental and spatial factors. We propose that the inoculation of soil-derived archaea is responsible for the archaeal community in the Kaidu river. Together, our study demonstrated that the bacterial community in the high-elevation Kaidu river is a continuum, whereas the archaeal community is not.
  • 9.
  • Cyclomaltodextrinases (CDases) belong to Glycoside Hydrolases (GH) family 13, which show versatile hydrolyzing and/or transglycosylation activity against cyclodextrin (CD), starch, and pullulan. Especially, some CDases have been reported to hydrolyze acarbose, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, and transfer the resulting acarviosine-glucose to various acceptors. In this study, a novel CDase (LPCD) gene was cloned from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, which encodes 574 amino acids (64.6 kDa) and shares less than 44% of identities with the known CDase-family enzymes. Recombinant LPCD with C-terminal six-histidines was produced and purified from Escherichia coli. It showed the highest activity on β-CD at 45°C and pH 5.0, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that LPCD exists as a dodecameric form (~826 kDa). Its hydrolyzing activity on β- CD is almost same as that on starch, whereas it can hardly attack pullulan. Most interestingly, LPCD catalyzed the unique modes of action in acarbose hydrolysis to produce maltose and acarviosine, as well as to glucose and acarviosineglucose.
  • 10.
  • Important staple foods (peanuts, maize and rice) are susceptible to contamination by aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. The objective of this study was to explore non-aflatoxin-producing (atoxigenic) A. flavus strains as biocontrol agents for the control of AFs. In the current study, a total of 724 A. flavus strains were isolated from different regions of China. Polyphasic approaches were utilized for species identification. Non-aflatoxin and non-cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing strains were further screened for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) biosynthesis pathway gene clusters using a PCR assay. Strains lacking an amplicon for the regulatory gene aflR were then analyzed for the presence of the other 28 biosynthetic genes. Only 229 (32%) of the A. flavus strains were found to be atoxigenic. Smaller (S) sclerotial phenotypes were dominant (51%) compared to large (L, 34%) and non-sclerotial (NS, 15%) phenotypes. Among the atoxigenic strains, 24 strains were PCR-negative for the fas-1 and aflJ genes. Sixteen (67%) atoxigenic A. flavus strains were PCRnegative for 10 or more of the biosynthetic genes. Altogether, 18 new PCR product patterns were observed, indicating great diversity in the AFB1 biosynthesis pathway. The current study demonstrates that many atoxigenic A. flavus strains can be isolated from different regions of China. In the future laboratory as well as field based studies are recommended to test these atoxigenic strains as biocontrol agents for aflatoxin contamination.
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